Large-scale genetic analysis of the remains of ancient people has allowed geneticists to prove that the first Indo-Europeans actually lived within the Caspian steppes, and not Turkey, and were representatives of the so-called "Yamna culture" of southern Russia and Ukraine, reported in the publication, published in the journal.
Today linguists and history claim 2 the most commonly accepted hypothesis of the origin of Indo-European language family is "Anatolian" and " Caspian ". According to the first common ancestor of the Indo-European languages originated in the borders of modern Turkey, in Anatolia, while the second carries the homeland of this language family in the Caspian steppes.
in the last few years scientists are trying to prove them not only through linguistic methods, but also using methods from the natural Sciences. For example, in the last month of summer 2012 in the journal Science, was published research work in which the truth of the Anatolian hypothesis was proved using the methods of biology, and in February 2015 genetics told otherwise.
Another group of geneticists under the leadership Eske Willerslev (Eske Willerslev of the University of Copenhagen (Denmark) provided additional evidence in favor of the "Caspian" theory, "raising" and studied the genomes of more than a hundred ancient Indo-Europeans, who lived within different parts of Eurasia more than six thousand years ago, in the Bronze age, and in excess of the modern era.
As shown by This comparison, Authorized the first Indo-European tribes from Central and Eastern Europe, who belonged To the so-called culture of "battle axes" were the closest in genetic terms not To Anatolians, and To the so-called " Yamna culture ".
Authorized this culture, tell Willerslev and his colleagues, lived within the steppes of Stavropol, Kazakhstan, the southern Urals and Ukraine, quite a long time and they are the progenitors of the Indo-European supporters of the "Caspian" theory.
in favor of this except the kinship of these crops, and says that "Yamna culture" was genetically connected with the so-called afanasevskoy culture, whose Commissioners have inhabited the Altai and southern Siberia in the Bronze age, when there was the resettlement of Indo-Europeans on the continent.
This genetic link, As the scientists explain, gives you the opportunity to explain not so long ago outdoor the genetic paradox, indicating that American Indians are genetically related to modern Europeans, sharing with them about 20% of genes, and not like the modern inhabitants of Chukotka and Siberia.
Authorized " Yamna culture ", As demonstrated over the deep genetic analysis, has introduced a number of new features that were rare in Europe until the coming of the Indo-Europeans. According to Willerslev and his colleagues, they added in pan-Eurasian gene pool a gene associated with light skin color, brown eyes and those portions of DNA that are responsible for the ability to tolerate lactose in milk into adult life.
It was a big surprise for scientists, because until now, geneticists and anthropologists believed that mankind learned to drink milk for a long time, 13-11 thousand years ago, when people switched from hunting and gathering To agriculture. It turns out that dairy cattle occurred in the European Union and Asia together with the middle East peace farmers, and together with the warlike nomads of the Caspian, the scientists conclude.